Number of found documents: 744
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Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
2018 - English
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results. Keywords: digitalization; entrepreneurship; technology dissemination Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions

Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the ...

Pleticha, Petr
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Bayesian persuasion with costly information acquisition
Matysková, Ludmila
2018 - English
A sender who chooses a signal to reveal to a receiver can often influence the receiver’s subsequent actions. Is persuasion more difficult when the receiver has her own sources of information? Does the receiver benefit from having additional information sources? We consider a Bayesian persuasion\nmodel extended to a receiver’s endogenous acquisition of information under an entropy-based cost commonly used in rational inattention. A sender’s optimal signal can be computed from standard Bayesian persuasion subject to an additional constraint: the receiver never gathers her own costly information. We further determine a finite set of the sender’s signals satisfying the additional\nconstraint in which some optimal signal must be contained. The set is characterized by linear conditions using the receiver’s utility and information cost parameters. The new method is also applicable to a standard Bayesian persuasion model and can simplify, sometimes dramatically, the search for a sender’s optimal signal (as opposed to a standard concavification technique used to solve these models). We show that the ‘threat’ of additional learning weakly decreases the sender’s expected equilibrium payoff. However, the outcome can be worse not only for the sender, but also for the receiver.\n \n Keywords: Bayesian persuasion; rational inattention; costly information acquisition Fulltext is available at external website.
Bayesian persuasion with costly information acquisition

A sender who chooses a signal to reveal to a receiver can often influence the receiver’s subsequent actions. Is persuasion more difficult when the receiver has her own sources of information? Does the ...

Matysková, Ludmila
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Selective sampling with information-storage constraints
Jehiel, P.; Steiner, Jakub
2018 - English
A decision-maker acquires payoff-relevant information until she reaches her storing capacity, at\nwhich point she either terminates the decision-making and chooses an action, or discards some\ninformation. By conditioning the probability of termination on the information collected, she\ncontrols the correlation between the payoff state and her terminal action. We provide an\noptimality condition for the emerging stochastic choice. The condition highlights the benefits of\nselective memory applied to the extracted signals. The constrained-optimal choice rule exhibits (i)\nconfirmation bias, (ii) speed-accuracy complementarity, (iii) overweighting of rare events, and\n(iv) salience effect. Keywords: bounded rationality; cognitive constraints; information processing Fulltext is available at external website.
Selective sampling with information-storage constraints

A decision-maker acquires payoff-relevant information until she reaches her storing capacity, at\nwhich point she either terminates the decision-making and chooses an action, or discards ...

Jehiel, P.; Steiner, Jakub
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Co skrývají známky na vysvědčení?
Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, T.
2018 - Czech
Our analysis shows that the differences between boys' and girls' grades is not a result\nof differences in the way stress affects test results, nor a difference in pupils' liking for or\naversion to the subject in question. The likely cause of the difference in grades between girls\nand boys is that the grades are influenced by the pupils' socio-emotional skills. Keywords: grades; Czech Republic; gender differences Fulltext is available at external website.
Co skrývají známky na vysvědčení?

Our analysis shows that the differences between boys' and girls' grades is not a result\nof differences in the way stress affects test results, nor a difference in pupils' liking for or\naversion to ...

Münich, Daniel; Protivínský, T.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Dopady vyšších platů politiků na volby do zastupitelstev obcí
Palguta, Ján; Pertold, Filip
2018 - Czech
Tato studie zkoumá, zda má zvýšení platů představitelů samosprávy potenciál motivovat občany ke kandidatuře a zlepšit výběr zvolených zastupitelů. Zkoumáme, jaký vliv mají platy na počet politických subjektů, jež do voleb vstupují (tj. na politickou soutěž), a dále na výběr zastupitelů s ohledem k jejich vzdělání, předešlému povolání, pohlaví a věku. Pro identifikaci kauzálních efektů platů využíváme existenci skokových nárůstů platových odměn příplatků starostů podle velikosti obce. This study investigates whether raising local representatives’ pay has the potential to motivate\ncitizens to stand for election and thus improve the selection of elected councillors. We look\nat the influence pay has on the number of political subjects that enter the election (i.e. on the political competition), and at the selection of representatives in terms of their education, previous profession, gender and age. To identify the causal effects of salaries, we use the existence of sharp increases in the salaries paid to mayors based on municipality size.\n Keywords: Czech Republic; municipal elections Fulltext is available at external website.
Dopady vyšších platů politiků na volby do zastupitelstev obcí

Tato studie zkoumá, zda má zvýšení platů představitelů samosprávy potenciál motivovat občany ke kandidatuře a zlepšit výběr zvolených zastupitelů. Zkoumáme, jaký vliv mají platy na počet politických ...

Palguta, Ján; Pertold, Filip
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Whoever has will be given more: child endowment and human capital investment
Borga, Liyousew Gebremedhin; Pidkuyko, M.
2018 - English
Using a unique longitudinal survey from Ethiopia, we investigate whether resource constrained\nparents reinforce or attenuate differences in early abilities between their children. We propose a simple model that allows for sibling interactions. To overcome the endogeneity associated with measures of endowment, we construct a measure of human capital at birth that is plausibly net of prenatal investment. We estimate a sibling fixed-effect model to account for bias due to unobserved family-specific heterogeneity. We find that parents reinforce educational inequality: inherently healthy children are more likely to attend preschool, be enrolled in elementary school, and have more expenses incurred towards their education. Health inputs are allocated in a compensatory manner.\n Keywords: cognitive ability; health endowment; intrahousehold allocation Fulltext is available at external website.
Whoever has will be given more: child endowment and human capital investment

Using a unique longitudinal survey from Ethiopia, we investigate whether resource constrained\nparents reinforce or attenuate differences in early abilities between their children. We propose a simple ...

Borga, Liyousew Gebremedhin; Pidkuyko, M.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Anti-social behavior in groups
Bauer, Michal; Cahlíková, J.; Celik Katreniak, D.; Chytilová, Julie; Cingl, L.; Želinský, T.
2018 - English
This paper provides strong evidence supporting the long-standing speculation that decisionmaking in groups has a dark side, by magnifying the prevalence of anti-social behavior towards outsiders. A large-scale experiment implemented in Slovakia and Uganda (N=2,309) reveals that deciding in a group with randomly assigned peers increases the prevalence of anti-social behavior that reduces everyone’s payoff but which improves the relative position of own group. The effects are driven by the influence of a group context on individual behavior, rather than by group deliberation. The observed patterns are strikingly similar on both continents. Keywords: antisocial behavior; aggressive competitiveness; group membership Fulltext is available at external website.
Anti-social behavior in groups

This paper provides strong evidence supporting the long-standing speculation that decisionmaking in groups has a dark side, by magnifying the prevalence of anti-social behavior towards outsiders. A ...

Bauer, Michal; Cahlíková, J.; Celik Katreniak, D.; Chytilová, Julie; Cingl, L.; Želinský, T.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Do higher wages produce career politicians? Evidence from two discontinuity designs
Palguta, J.; Pertold, Filip
2018 - English
Wages paid to politicians affect both the selection of candidates into electoral races and the on-the-job performance incentives of incumbents. We differentiate between selection and incentive effects using two regression discontinuity designs based on: 1) population thresholds shifting politicians' wages and 2) electoral seat thresholds splitting candidates into those who narrowly won or lost. We find that higher wages do not increase the electoral incumbency advantage, suggesting that the incentive effect of higher wages does not impact re-election rates. We further show that higher wages motivate narrowly elected incumbents to run again much less often than past narrowly non-elected candidates. Keywords: re-election; political selection; electoral competition Fulltext is available at external website.
Do higher wages produce career politicians? Evidence from two discontinuity designs

Wages paid to politicians affect both the selection of candidates into electoral races and the on-the-job performance incentives of incumbents. We differentiate between selection and incentive effects ...

Palguta, J.; Pertold, Filip
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Komu školka (ne)pomůže? Zkušenosti ze série reforem rané a předškolní péče v Německu
Pertold, Filip; Zapletalová, L.
2018 - Czech
Tato studie shrnuje klíčová zjištění tří výzkumů kauzálních dopadů poměrně nedávné expanze dostupnosti institucionální předškolní péče v Německu na osobnostní rozvoj dětí. Protože v Česku se empirických výzkumů tohoto typu nedostává, přináší zjištění z blízkého zahraničí velmi cenné informace do probíhajících diskusí o nové povinnosti obcí zajistit místa v zařízeních předškolní výchovy již pro dvouleté děti. This study summarizes the conclusions of academic papers on the effect of expanding institutionalized preschool childcare in Germany on children's development. The effect of preschool childcare is currently heavily debated in the Czech Republic in connection with the planned introduction of a law requiring local authorities to provide places in preschool institutions for children aged two and above. Keywords: preschool; Germany; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Komu školka (ne)pomůže? Zkušenosti ze série reforem rané a předškolní péče v Německu

Tato studie shrnuje klíčová zjištění tří výzkumů kauzálních dopadů poměrně nedávné expanze dostupnosti institucionální předškolní péče v Německu na osobnostní rozvoj dětí. Protože v Česku se ...

Pertold, Filip; Zapletalová, L.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Průvodce seniora: jak neprodělat při předčasném odchodu ze zaměstnání
Šatava, Jiří
2018 - Czech
Tato studie vyčísluje finanční důsledky šesti základních možností pro několik typizovaných seniorů, kteří dva roky před dosažením řádného důchodového věku odešli z práce „dohodou“. Navíc nastiňuje i jejich nefinanční podmínky a důsledky jejich možností. Ideální kompromis mezi finančními a nefinančními dopady jednotlivých možností je již ponechán na preferencích a volbě konkrétního seniora This study quantifies the financial consequences of six basic options for a number of typical individuals who leave their jobs "by agreement" two years before reaching statutory retirement age. It also outlines the non-financial conditions and consequences of these options. The ideal compromise between the financial and non-financial consequences of each option is left to the preferences of particular individuals. Keywords: social and pensions system; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Průvodce seniora: jak neprodělat při předčasném odchodu ze zaměstnání

Tato studie vyčísluje finanční důsledky šesti základních možností pro několik typizovaných seniorů, kteří dva roky před dosažením řádného důchodového věku odešli z práce „dohodou“. Navíc nastiňuje i ...

Šatava, Jiří
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

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