Number of found documents: 14761
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Classification of distances in cosmology
Křížek, Michal; Mészáros, A.
2018 - English
In cosmology many different distances are defined: angular, comoving, Euclidean, Hubble, light-year, luminosity, Minkowski, parallax, proper motion, redshift, ... distance. There is not one single natural distance, since the universe is expanding, curved, and we look back in time. In this survey paper we will concentrate on geometrical interpretations of the above-mentioned distances. Keywords: standard cosmological model; cosmological principle; Friedmann equation; cosmological parameters; Einstein static universe Available in digital repository of the ASCR
Classification of distances in cosmology

In cosmology many different distances are defined: angular, comoving, Euclidean, Hubble, light-year, luminosity, Minkowski, parallax, proper motion, redshift, ... distance. There is not one single ...

Křížek, Michal; Mészáros, A.
Matematický ústav, 2018

Problem of competing risks with covariates: Application to an unemployment study
Volf, Petr
2018 - English
The study deals with the methods of statistical analysis in the situation of competing risks in the presence of regression. First, the problem of identification of marginal and joint distributions of competing random variables is recalled. The main objective is then to demonstrate that the parameters and, in particular, the correlation of competing variables, may depend on covariates. The approach is applied to solution of a real example with unemployment data. The model uses the Gauss copula and Cox’s regression model. Keywords: statistical analysis; competing risks; unemployment study Fulltext is available at external website.
Problem of competing risks with covariates: Application to an unemployment study

The study deals with the methods of statistical analysis in the situation of competing risks in the presence of regression. First, the problem of identification of marginal and joint distributions of ...

Volf, Petr
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2018

Synergické efekty svařování laser - TIG
Kubíček, J.; Doležal, P.; Mrňa, Libor; Šebestová, Hana; Horník, Petr
2018 - Czech
Laserové svařování ve srovnání s konvenčními obloukovými metodami je doprovázeno rychlou rychlostí chlazení. To může vést ke vzniku nežádoucí mikrostruktury svařovaného kovu a tepelně postižené zóny některých ocelových tříd, což má negativní dopad na jejich mechanické vlastnosti. Předehřívání je poměrně problematické kvůli vysoké rychlosti svařování laserem. Byla testována možnost předehřívání teplem z obloukového výboje přidruženého hořáku TIG. Přesný držák byl vyroben pro upevnění hořáku na laserovou svařovací hlavu, umožňující umístění TIG elektrody směrem k laserovému paprsku a obrobku. Byla provedena řada ocelových zkoušek S460MC a S700MC s vysokou pevností. Účinek proudění TIG na mikrostrukturální změny byl prokázán. Některé svařovací experimenty byly porovnány s simulacemi svařování SYSWELD. Laser welding compared to conventional arc methods is accompanied by rapid cooling rates. It can lead to the formation of undesirable microstructure of the weld metal and heat affected zone of some steel grades which has a negative impact on their mechanical properties. The preheating is quite problematic because of high speed of laser welding. The possibility of preheating by the heat of the arc discharge of the associated TIG burner has been tested. Precise holder has been fabricated to fix the burner to the laser welding head allowing TIG electrode positioning towards the laser beam and the workpiece. A number of high strength steel S460MC and S700MC welding experiments was performed. The effect of TIG current on microstructural changes has been proven. Some welding experiments were compared to the SYSWELD welding simulations.\n Keywords: laser – TIG welding; cooling rate; HSLA steels; microstructure; tensile strength Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Synergické efekty svařování laser - TIG

Laserové svařování ve srovnání s konvenčními obloukovými metodami je doprovázeno rychlou rychlostí chlazení. To může vést ke vzniku nežádoucí mikrostruktury svařovaného kovu a tepelně postižené zóny ...

Kubíček, J.; Doležal, P.; Mrňa, Libor; Šebestová, Hana; Horník, Petr
Ústav přístrojové techniky, 2018

Asymmetry of the response probability density of a system with parametric random noises
Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril
2018 - English
Recording of time variable processes is accompanied by various internal disturbing effects as a rule. They influence parameters of the measuring facility, transducer-device transmission, etc. These parasitic processes are usually of the random character and, consequently, they exercise as parametric noises. Moreover, the input signal mostly consists of a useful signal which can be taken as composed from deterministic and random additive part. Various combinations of these noises are the origin of random and also systematic measuring errors which can have under certain circumstances a cumulative character, deteriorate the output signal quality and can lead finally to the stochastic stability loss. These effects can be theoretically described using differential systems with stochastic coefficients and stochastic right hand side considering all input and output processes to be of the Markov type. Keywords: random vibration; signal reconstruction; parametric noise; response asymmetry Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Asymmetry of the response probability density of a system with parametric random noises

Recording of time variable processes is accompanied by various internal disturbing effects as a rule. They influence parameters of the measuring facility, transducer-device transmission, etc. These ...

Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril
Ústav teoretické a aplikované mechaniky, 2018

Dynamic Bayesian Networks for the Classification of Sleep Stages
Vomlel, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Václav
2018 - English
Human sleep is traditionally classified into five (or six) stages. The manual classification is time consuming since it requires knowledge of an extensive set of rules from manuals and experienced experts. Therefore automatic classification methods appear useful for this task. In this paper we extend the approach based on Hidden Markov Models by relating certain features not only to the current time slice but also to the previous one. Dynamic Bayesian Networks that results from this generalization are thus capable of modeling features related to state transitions. Experiments on real data revealed that in this way we are able to increase the prediction accuracy. Keywords: Dynamic Bayesian Network; Sleep Analysis Fulltext is available at external website.
Dynamic Bayesian Networks for the Classification of Sleep Stages

Human sleep is traditionally classified into five (or six) stages. The manual classification is time consuming since it requires knowledge of an extensive set of rules from manuals and experienced ...

Vomlel, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Václav
Ústav teorie informace a automatizace, 2018

Poruchy skleněných výplní stropu nad studovnou Knihovny AV ČR
Drdácký, Miloš; Hlobil, Michal
2018 - Czech
Ve výzkumné zprávě je popsán současný stav poškození skleněných výplní stropu nad studovnou Knihovny AV ČR. Prasklé skleněné tabule jsou zdokumentovány a je navrženo opatření, které by mělo jejich budoucí porušení minimalizovat. The report describes the current state of the damaged glass panels above the study room in the library of the Czech Academy of Sciences. The fractured glass panels are documented and a recommendation is given to minimize their future damage. Keywords: fracture; glass panel; steel grid Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Poruchy skleněných výplní stropu nad studovnou Knihovny AV ČR

Ve výzkumné zprávě je popsán současný stav poškození skleněných výplní stropu nad studovnou Knihovny AV ČR. Prasklé skleněné tabule jsou zdokumentovány a je navrženo opatření, které by mělo jejich ...

Drdácký, Miloš; Hlobil, Michal
Ústav teoretické a aplikované mechaniky, 2018

Vliv organických látek na charakter agregátů tvořených koagulací/flokulací při úpravě vody
Filipenská, Monika; Pivokonská, Lenka; Vašatová, Petra; Pivokonský, Martin
2018 - Czech
Cílem práce bylo popsat vliv různých znečišťujících příměsí (kaolinitové částice, COM peptidy/proteiny a jejich směs) na velikost, velikostní distribuci, tvar a strukturu agregátů tvořených v proměnných hydrodynamických podmínkách (různá gradient rychlosti) v konečné fázi vývoje agregace, tzv. steady state. Jako míchací zařízení byl zvolen Taylor-Couettův reaktor, který umožňuje neinvazivní pozorování agregátů. Vlastnosti agregátů byly vyhodnocovány metodou obrazové analýzy. Bylo zjištěno, že velikost a tvar agregátů je závislá na typu koagulačního činidla, typu koagulované přímesi a aplikovaném gradientu rychlosti. Železité koagulační činidlo produkuje větší a méně pravidelné agregáty než činidlo hlinité. Podle příměsi roste velikost (zároveň klesá kompaktnost a roste neuspořádanost) agregátů v pořadí kaolinit < COM < kaolinit + COM. Bylo zjištěno, že velikost agregátů se na aplikovaném gradientu rychlosti nemění plynule, jak bylo doposud předpokládání, ale při překročení hodnoty tzv. kritických gradientů rychlosti, dochází k její prudké změně. Změny ve velikosti agregátů se liší v závislosti na charakteru koagulovaných příměsí a byly vysvětleny pomocí rozdílných interakcí mezi znečišťující příměsí a koagulačním činidlem. Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Vliv organických látek na charakter agregátů tvořených koagulací/flokulací při úpravě vody

Cílem práce bylo popsat vliv různých znečišťujících příměsí (kaolinitové částice, COM peptidy/proteiny a jejich směs) na velikost, velikostní distribuci, tvar a strukturu agregátů tvořených v ...

Filipenská, Monika; Pivokonská, Lenka; Vašatová, Petra; Pivokonský, Martin
Ústav pro hydrodynamiku, 2018

Acoustic characteristics of 3D human vocal tract model with nasal cavities – preliminary experimental results
Radolf, Vojtěch; Horáček, Jaromír; Košina, Jan; Vampola, T.
2018 - English
Acoustic resonance characteristics of 3D human vocal tract model with nasal and paranasal cavities were measured in three different ways: The excitation was realized by (1) self-oscillating vocal folds replica, (2) by a swept harmonic signal from an earphone placed instead of the vocal folds and (3) by a white noise signal from a loudspeaker located in front of the open mouth of the model. Resulting resonance frequencies are comparable for all excitation signals. These experiments were carried out to verify a complex mathematical model. Keywords: formant frequencies; transfer function; biomechanics of voice Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Acoustic characteristics of 3D human vocal tract model with nasal cavities – preliminary experimental results

Acoustic resonance characteristics of 3D human vocal tract model with nasal and paranasal cavities were measured in three different ways: The excitation was realized by (1) self-oscillating vocal ...

Radolf, Vojtěch; Horáček, Jaromír; Košina, Jan; Vampola, T.
Ústav termomechaniky, 2018

Self-excited oscillation properties of the profile NACA0015 in subsonic flow
Zolotarev, Igor; Vlček, Václav; Kozánek, Jan
2018 - English
Self-excited oscillations of the profile NACA0015 in subsonic flow were realized in the wind tunnel. The plunge support had the same elasticity for all experiments, the pitch support had seven different elasticity parameters. During our experiments different types of selfexcited vibration (flutter, stall flutter) were observed. Range of Mach numbers was M = 0.08–0.45, corresponding range of Reynolds numbers is Re = (1–5)·105, when the chord length is used as the characteristic dimension of the profile.\n Keywords: airfoil; aeroelasticity; stall flutter; dynamic stall; limit cycle oscillation; self-excited vibration Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Self-excited oscillation properties of the profile NACA0015 in subsonic flow

Self-excited oscillations of the profile NACA0015 in subsonic flow were realized in the wind tunnel. The plunge support had the same elasticity for all experiments, the pitch support had seven ...

Zolotarev, Igor; Vlček, Václav; Kozánek, Jan
Ústav termomechaniky, 2018

Vibration stability of a vertical flywheel lifted by permanent magnetic rings
Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Ferfecki, P.; Sudhakar, A.; Kozánek, Jan
2018 - English
Lifting the vertical flywheels by permanent magnets is used to reduce energy losses in the support elements. Unstable equilibrium position of pairs of magnetic rings, material damping of the shaft, and nonlinear properties of the support elements can arrive at the flywheel unstable oscillations. Therefore, evaluation of the vibration stability is the essential part of the design process of flywheel devices. In the developed computational procedure the flywheel is represented by a beam-like body, to which an absolutely rigid disc (the actual flywheel) is attached. The determination of the force action between the magnetic rings is based on mutual interaction between two magnetic dipoles. The steady state response of the flywheel on the unbalance excitation is calculated by means of the trigonometric collocation method and its stability is evaluated by application of the Floquet theorem. The developed computational procedures and learning more on behaviour of flywheels lifted by magnetic rings are the main contributions of the carried out research.\n Keywords: vertical flywheels; permanent magnets; vibration stability Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Vibration stability of a vertical flywheel lifted by permanent magnetic rings

Lifting the vertical flywheels by permanent magnets is used to reduce energy losses in the support elements. Unstable equilibrium position of pairs of magnetic rings, material damping of the shaft, ...

Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Ferfecki, P.; Sudhakar, A.; Kozánek, Jan
Ústav termomechaniky, 2018

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