Number of found documents: 744
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Dopady odkládaného zrušení superhrubé mzdy
Kalíšková, Klára; Šoltés, Michal
2018 - Czech
Superhrubá mzda, zavedená v roce 2008, čelila již několika pokusům o zrušení. Poslední záměr na zrušení superhrubé mzdy spolu se zavedením progresivního daňového systému se objevil v únoru letošního roku jako součást daňového balíčku navrhovaného Ministerstvem financí ČR a posléze i v programovém prohlášení současné vlády. V srpnu 2018 tento záměr z legislativního balíku vlády opět vypadl, ale lze očekávat, že tato novela bude předložena v budoucnu znovu. There have already been a number of attempts to abolish the concept of super gross wages\nused for personal income tax purposes since 2008. The most recent proposal to abolish super\ngross wages and introduce a progressive tax system was put forward in February 2018 as part\nof a tax package suggested by the Czech Ministry of Finance and subsequently appeared in the\ncurrent government’s policy statement. By August 2018 this intention had disappeared from\nthe government’s legislative package, but we can expect this amendment to be brought back\nto the table in the future. Keywords: super gross wages; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Dopady odkládaného zrušení superhrubé mzdy

Superhrubá mzda, zavedená v roce 2008, čelila již několika pokusům o zrušení. Poslední záměr na zrušení superhrubé mzdy spolu se zavedením progresivního daňového systému se objevil v únoru letošního ...

Kalíšková, Klára; Šoltés, Michal
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Intelektuální dovednosti českých učitelů v mezinárodním a generačním srovnání
Münich, Daniel; Krajčová, Jana
2018 - Czech
Tato studie detailně mapuje úroveň a rozdíly ve výše uvedených intelektuálních dovednostech\nnárodních populací a jejich učitelů. Konkrétně jde o: (a) mezinárodní srovnání starších a mladších dospělých populací a (b) mladších a starších generací učitelů. Naše srovnání se neomezuje na průměrné hodnoty skóre testů, ale odhaluje i velikost heterogenity dovedností v rámci příslušných populací jednotlivých zemí. Nabízíme tak detailní náhled na problematiku výběrovosti do učitelské profese, a to jak v mezinárodním, tak mezigeneračním srovnání. This study reveals the levels achieved in and differences between general intellectual skills achieved by national populations as a whole and those achieved by teachers. Specifically it presents (a) an international comparison of older and younger adult populations and (b) a comparison of younger and older generations of teachers. Our comparison does not limit itself to presenting mean test score values, but also reveals the extent of heterogeneity in skills among the relevant populations of each country. We also offer a detailed overview of the issue of selection into the teaching profession, from both international and intergenerational perspectives. Keywords: Czech Republic; teachers’ intellectual skills; generational comparison Fulltext is available at external website.
Intelektuální dovednosti českých učitelů v mezinárodním a generačním srovnání

Tato studie detailně mapuje úroveň a rozdíly ve výše uvedených intelektuálních dovednostech\nnárodních populací a jejich učitelů. Konkrétně jde o: (a) mezinárodní srovnání starších a mladších ...

Münich, Daniel; Krajčová, Jana
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Integration of migrants in European countries: first and second generations
Sargsyan, Vahan
2018 - English
Keywords: citizenship policy; naturalization; individual integration Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Integration of migrants in European countries: first and second generations

Sargsyan, Vahan
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

Dopad zavedení karenční doby v roce 2008 na pracovní neschopnost
Pertold, Filip
2018 - Czech
Vláda České republiky (ČR) schválila plán na zrušení tzv. karenční doby – neproplácení prvních tří dnů pracovní neschopnosti. Tato studie shrnuje nejdůležitější závěry výzkumného článku Filipa Pertolda o krátkodobých dopadech reformy pracovní neschopnosti, která karenční dobu zavedla, tj. snížila finanční náhradu za první tři dny čerpání v roce 2008 nemocenské na nulu. The government of the Czech Republic has approved a plan to cancel the so-called waiting period – the policy of not paying any sick pay during the first three days of sick leave from work. This study summarises the most important findings of Filip Pertold’s research paper about the short term impacts of the sick pay reform that introduced the waiting period, i.e. reduced the amount of sick pay for the first three days of sick leave taken in 2008 to zero. Fulltext is available at external website.
Dopad zavedení karenční doby v roce 2008 na pracovní neschopnost

Vláda České republiky (ČR) schválila plán na zrušení tzv. karenční doby – neproplácení prvních tří dnů pracovní neschopnosti. Tato studie shrnuje nejdůležitější závěry výzkumného článku Filipa ...

Pertold, Filip
Národohospodářský ústav, 2018

IDEA pro volby 2017: platy učitelů ve volebních programech: přehled a rozbor
Münich, Daniel
2017 - Czech
Studie mapuje a rozebírá, do jaké míry volební programy významnějších politických subjektů (dále jen stran) pro volby do Poslanecké sněmovny Parlamentu České republiky poskytují odpovědi na sedm klíčových otázek týkajících se platů a dalších pracovních podmínek učitelů. This study maps and examines the extent to which the election manifestos of the prominent political entities (hereafter referred to as parties) running for election to the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Parliament provide answers to seven questions related to teachers’ pay and working conditions. Keywords: teachers’ salaries; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
IDEA pro volby 2017: platy učitelů ve volebních programech: přehled a rozbor

Studie mapuje a rozebírá, do jaké míry volební programy významnějších politických subjektů (dále jen stran) pro volby do Poslanecké sněmovny Parlamentu České republiky poskytují odpovědi na sedm ...

Münich, Daniel
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

The effect of shame in dictator games with information asymmetry
Miklánek, Tomáš
2017 - English
This study introduces a theoretical model of inequality aversion which can also be used in an environment with information asymmetries. The model is based on the non-paternalistic approach where, the own utility function incorporates the utility of other people as perceived by a decision maker. Moreover it allows extensions for other motives which may result in pro-social behavior. I extend the model by adding shame aversion as an additional driver for apparently altruistic behavior. Threat of shame is induced by different levels of exposure of either own actions or identity to the third party observers. I also experimentally test predictions of the model using a very simple environment of a dictator’s game. The experimental design aims to remove additional\nconfounding behavioral effects present in the previous literature. The results suggest that even a very small exposure results in significantly higher amounts sent to recipients. The analysis also shows that the agents, who believe that they can conceal their own actions in front of the less informed counterpart, exploit this information asymmetry for their monetary benefit. Keywords: shame; dictator game; anonymity Fulltext is available at external website.
The effect of shame in dictator games with information asymmetry

This study introduces a theoretical model of inequality aversion which can also be used in an environment with information asymmetries. The model is based on the non-paternalistic approach where, the ...

Miklánek, Tomáš
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Ego-utility and endogenous information acquisition; an experimental study
Miklánek, Tomáš
2017 - English
This paper examines endogenous decisions to acquire useful information. My experimental design tries to test predictions of ego-utility theories and other relevant theories about the decision-making process of agents in the environment with costless signals. Only slightly more than half of the subjects acquired an optimal number of the signals for payoff maximization. The results suggest that for the subjects making sub-optimal decisions, aversion to cognitive dissonance is the prevalent channel. Contrary to this, I find much less support for the ego-utility theory and theory of information ignorance in my setting. The availability of information alone does not automatically lead to an improvement in decisions. Keywords: information acquisition; experiment; overconfidence Fulltext is available at external website.
Ego-utility and endogenous information acquisition; an experimental study

This paper examines endogenous decisions to acquire useful information. My experimental design tries to test predictions of ego-utility theories and other relevant theories about the decision-making ...

Miklánek, Tomáš
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Remittances, spending and political instability in Ukraine
Kuntsevych, Iuliia
2017 - English
This paper analyzes remittances sent by Ukrainian emigrants to their country of origin. It explores the dependence on remittances of a household’s spending on human capital, savings and donations, against the backdrop of the political situation in Ukraine in 2004. The paper also explores the effect of the political instability in Ukraine on how the households receiving remittances used them. The results of a Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) are used to explore households’ decision to spend on human capital development, save, or donate money; depending on their political views and future expectations. The main hypothesis tested\nis whether the individuals who supported and/or were involved with the Revolution (“pro-orange”), and who were optimistic about the future of Ukraine after the Orange Revolution, saved/donated more money than those who did not support the Revolution (“pro-blue-white”). In addition, the level of influence of remittances received from relatives or friends outside Ukraine on decisions to save and donate money is analyzed. The results show that the political views of respondents do not have a significant effect on decisions to save and/or donate money. However respondents’ political orientations do have a significant effect on the probability of receiving remittances - those who voted for “pro-orange” have a lower probability of receiving remittances from outside the household. Keywords: remittances; remittance behavior; Ukraine Fulltext is available at external website.
Remittances, spending and political instability in Ukraine

This paper analyzes remittances sent by Ukrainian emigrants to their country of origin. It explores the dependence on remittances of a household’s spending on human capital, savings and donations, ...

Kuntsevych, Iuliia
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Treatment-related naturalization premiums in two European countries: evaluation and comparison
Sargsyan, Vahan
2017 - English
We conduct an empirical study in order to estimate the impact of naturalization on labor market\nintegration of first generation immigrants in two European countries, France and Denmark. The\nstudy contributes to the existing literature by: (1) comparing the employment opportunities and\nincomes of naturalized and non-naturalized migrants in European labor markets to those of the\nnative population, and (2) attempting to estimate the impact of characteristics of a country’s\ncitizenship policy on this relationship. The results suggest the existence of high naturalization premiums and full socioeconomic integration of naturalized migrants in France, a country with relatively soft naturalization policies, but not for Denmark, which has strict naturalization policies. Keywords: citizenship policy; naturalization; naturalization premium Fulltext is available at external website.
Treatment-related naturalization premiums in two European countries: evaluation and comparison

We conduct an empirical study in order to estimate the impact of naturalization on labor market\nintegration of first generation immigrants in two European countries, France and Denmark. The\nstudy ...

Sargsyan, Vahan
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Knowledge exchange and productivity spill-overs in Bangladeshi garment factories
Menzel, Andreas
2017 - English
Productivity spill-overs within firms have commonly been used as a proxy measure for organizational learning. Using novel data from more than 200 production lines in three garment factories in Bangladesh, this paper extends the evidence on such productivity spill-over in two directions. First, I find that spatial distance within firms matters greatly for the strengths of productivity spill-overs, while product complexity matters little. This has important implications for firms in rapidly developing countries such as Bangladesh, as spill-over strength seems less affected\nwhen firms upgrade to more complex products, but seems more affected if firms grow larger. Second, I provide evidence from a randomized communication intervention in the three factories to determine the extent to which productivity spill-overs are indeed a measure of knowledge exchange within firms, and not of other types of peer effects, such as competition. In the intervention, randomly selected line supervisors were instructed by their superiors to share production knowledge when their lines were allocated the same garment for production. The intervention increased the strength of the productivity spill-overs between the targeted production lines. It thus supports the view that productivity spill-overs can be used as a measure of knowledge exchange within firms. Keywords: learning; productivity; firms Fulltext is available at external website.
Knowledge exchange and productivity spill-overs in Bangladeshi garment factories

Productivity spill-overs within firms have commonly been used as a proxy measure for organizational learning. Using novel data from more than 200 production lines in three garment factories in ...

Menzel, Andreas
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

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