Number of found documents: 744
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An advisor like me? Advisor gender and post-graduate careers in science
Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.
2017 - English
We investigate whether having an advisor of the same gender is correlated with the productivity of PhD science students and their propensity to stay in academic science. Our analysis is based on an original dataset covering nearly 20,000 PhD graduates and their advisors from U.S. chemistry departments. We find that students with an advisor of the same gender tend to be more productive during the PhD and more likely to become professors themselves. We suggest that the under-representation of women in science and engineering faculty positions may perpetuate itself through the lower availability of same-gender advisors for female students. Keywords: science; gender; universities Fulltext is available at external website.
An advisor like me? Advisor gender and post-graduate careers in science

We investigate whether having an advisor of the same gender is correlated with the productivity of PhD science students and their propensity to stay in academic science. Our analysis is based on an ...

Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Přísnější tresty za vraždy? Vyhodnocení dopadů legislativního návrhu
Dušek, Libor; Vávra, J.
2017 - Czech
Studie prezentuje dopady poslaneckého návrhu na zvýšení trestních sazeb za závažné zločiny na počty vězňů. Navrhované zvýšení trestních sazeb se týká úmyslné vraždy a trestů vůči mladistvým za nejzávažnější zločiny, včetně snížení věku trestní odpovědnosti za tyto zločiny. The study presents the estimated impacts of the bill to increase prison sentences for serious crimes on the numbers of prison inmates. The proposed increase in sentences would apply to wilful murders and to minors who commit the most serious crimes, including reducing the age of criminal responsibility for these crimes. Keywords: prison sentences; serious crimes; Czech Republic Fulltext is available at external website.
Přísnější tresty za vraždy? Vyhodnocení dopadů legislativního návrhu

Studie prezentuje dopady poslaneckého návrhu na zvýšení trestních sazeb za závažné zločiny na počty vězňů. Navrhované zvýšení trestních sazeb se týká úmyslné vraždy a trestů vůči mladistvým za ...

Dušek, Libor; Vávra, J.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Vrána k vráně sedá aneb důležitost oboru studia při výběru partnera
Bičáková, Alena; Jurajda, Štěpán; Zapletalová, L.
2017 - Czech
Výběrové párování, jinými slovy tendence žít s partnerem se stejnou úrovní dosaženého vzdělání, tj. tendence k tzv. vzdělanostní homogamii, je předmětem rozsáhlých výzkumů v sociologii, demografii i ekonomii. Tato studie, která vychází z výzkumného článku Bičáková a Jurajda (2016), zkoumá doposud zcela opomíjený aspekt výběrového párování v dimenzi studijních oborů – míru oborové homogamie. Studie mapuje, do jaké míry jsou v jednotlivých zemích EU páry tvořeny lidmi, vystudovanými ve stejném oboru. Selective pairing is a tendency toward choosing a life partner with the same level of attained education, resulting in educational homogamy, a phenomenon which has been the focus of extensive research for sociologists, demographers and economists. The present study, based on a research paper by Bičáková and Jurajda (2016), looks into an as yet unexplored aspect of selective pairing: the degree of field-of-study homogamy, mapping the degree to which couples within the EU countries are formed by people who have chosen the same field of study. Keywords: field-of-study homogamy; Czech Republic; selective pairing Fulltext is available at external website.
Vrána k vráně sedá aneb důležitost oboru studia při výběru partnera

Výběrové párování, jinými slovy tendence žít s partnerem se stejnou úrovní dosaženého vzdělání, tj. tendence k tzv. vzdělanostní homogamii, je předmětem rozsáhlých výzkumů v sociologii, demografii i ...

Bičáková, Alena; Jurajda, Štěpán; Zapletalová, L.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Criminals on the field: a study of college football
Janhuba, Radek; Čechová, K.
2017 - English
Keywords: football; official; crime Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Criminals on the field: a study of college football

Janhuba, Radek; Čechová, K.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Ženy a muži v českém výzkumu: publikační výkon, produktivita, spoluautorství a trendy
Jurajda, Štěpán; Kozubek, Stanislav; Münich, Daniel; Škoda, Samuel
2017 - Czech
Studie nabízí první dostupné srovnání vědeckého publikačního výkonu mužů a žen v České republice. Pro 11 oborových skupin a roky 2009 – 2013 srovnáváme publikace v časopisech indexovaných databází Web of Science (WoS) a v humanitních oborech i monografie. Kvalitu (význam) WoS článků odvozujeme od bibliometrického měřítka významu časopisu, kde byly články publikovány. This study offers the first systematic comparison of scientific publication performance of men and women in the Czech Republic. We analyze the period 2009 – 2013 and focus on publication output of Czech scientists in journals indexed in the Web of Science database in 11 broad field groups. In addition to the quantity of publications, we assess the quality of published articles using journal bibliometric indicators as a proxy for article quality. Keywords: Czech Republic; publication output; research evaluation Fulltext is available at external website.
Ženy a muži v českém výzkumu: publikační výkon, produktivita, spoluautorství a trendy

Studie nabízí první dostupné srovnání vědeckého publikačního výkonu mužů a žen v České republice. Pro 11 oborových skupin a roky 2009 – 2013 srovnáváme publikace v časopisech indexovaných databází Web ...

Jurajda, Štěpán; Kozubek, Stanislav; Münich, Daniel; Škoda, Samuel
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

IDEA pro volby 2017: nízké platy učitelů: hodně drahé šetření
Münich, Daniel
2017 - Czech
Tato studie shrnuje a rekapituluje klíčové skutečnosti, které se týkají honorování práce učitelů v České republice (ČR), poskytuje mezinárodní a národní srovnání a osvětluje širší souvislosti toho, jakými způsoby se učitelské platy promítají do kvality učitelského sboru a vzdělávání. Na závěr jsou položeny klíčové otázky do předvolebních diskusí, na něž by veřejnost měla hledat odpovědi v programech a příslibech politických subjektů. Czech teachers' average salaries at primary school level are the lowest in relation to the average salaries of other university-educated employees not only across the EU but also among OECD countries. In the Czech Republic teacher's pay comes in at 56% whereas the average across the EU and OECD is around 86%. Using alternative indicators of teachers' pay does nothing to change the Czechs' dismal international position. Keywords: Czech Republic; teachers’ pay; pay differences Fulltext is available at external website.
IDEA pro volby 2017: nízké platy učitelů: hodně drahé šetření

Tato studie shrnuje a rekapituluje klíčové skutečnosti, které se týkají honorování práce učitelů v České republice (ČR), poskytuje mezinárodní a národní srovnání a osvětluje širší souvislosti toho, ...

Münich, Daniel
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Asymmetries in the firm’s use of debt to changing market values
Ferris, S. P.; Hanousek, Jan; Shamshur, Anastasiya; Trešl, Jiří
2017 - English
Using a large sample of U.S. firms over the period, 1984 to 2013, this study examines the relation between market and book leverage ratios. Unlike Welch (2004) who contends that changes in market leverage do not induce adjustments in book leverage, we find an asymmetric effect. That is, firms adjust their book leverage relative to market leverage only when the changes in market leverage are due to increases in the value of the firm’s equity. No adjustment is observed when firm equity values decrease. We observe a number of interesting differences between those firms that make large and small capital structure adjustments in response to changing equity prices. Our results are consistent with Barclay, Morellec and Smith (2006) who argue that the optimal level of debt decreases in the presence of corporate growth options. Keywords: market leverage; book leverage; capital structure Fulltext is available at external website.
Asymmetries in the firm’s use of debt to changing market values

Using a large sample of U.S. firms over the period, 1984 to 2013, this study examines the relation between market and book leverage ratios. Unlike Welch (2004) who contends that changes in market ...

Ferris, S. P.; Hanousek, Jan; Shamshur, Anastasiya; Trešl, Jiří
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Electoral contests with dynamic campaign contributions
Mattozzi, Andrea; Michelucci, Fabio
2017 - English
We study a two-period dynamic principal agent model in which two agents with different unobservable abilities compete in a contest for a single prize. A risk-neutral principal can affect the outcome of the contest by dividing a given budget between agents in each period and her net payoff depends on the relative share of the budget given to the winner of the contest. We analyze two settings that differ by the presence/absence of moral hazard. The results we derive are consistent with stylized facts regarding the dynamics of US campaign contributions. Keywords: dynamic games; contests; experimentation Fulltext is available at external website.
Electoral contests with dynamic campaign contributions

We study a two-period dynamic principal agent model in which two agents with different unobservable abilities compete in a contest for a single prize. A risk-neutral principal can affect the outcome ...

Mattozzi, Andrea; Michelucci, Fabio
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Productivity and trade spillovers: horizontal crowding-out versus vertical synergies in Europe as a response to foreign direct investment
Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, E.; Vozárová, P.
2017 - English
We analyze the impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs), via their foreign direct investment (FDI), on domestic firms in 30 European host economies, from 2001 to 2013. We incorporate international industrial and trade linkages into a standard theoretical framework and test them empirically on a unique dataset compiled from the Amadeus, Eurostat, UN Comtrade and BACI data sources. While controlling for horizontal, vertical, and export channels at the upstream and downstream levels, we show that the presence of MNEs significantly affects domestic firms, in terms of both changing the market structure and improving productivity. The impact is not always positive, as domestic firms are often crowded-out. However, those firms that withstand such double competition receive additional benefits stemming from trade (export) spillovers. In our complex model, we did not find significant (positive) interactions of domestic firms with horizontal MNEs which would suggest desirable productivity spillovers. Keywords: multinational enterprise (MNE); foreign direct investment (FDI); European firms Fulltext is available at external website.
Productivity and trade spillovers: horizontal crowding-out versus vertical synergies in Europe as a response to foreign direct investment

We analyze the impact of multinational enterprises (MNEs), via their foreign direct investment (FDI), on domestic firms in 30 European host economies, from 2001 to 2013. We incorporate international ...

Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, E.; Vozárová, P.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

Criminals on the field: a study of college football
Janhuba, Radek; Čechová, K.
2017 - English
Economists have found mixed evidence on what happens when the number of police increases. On the one hand, more law enforcers means a higher probability of detecting a crime, which is known as the monitoring effect. On the other hand, criminals incorporate the increase into their decision-making process and thus may commit fewer crimes, constituting the deterrence effect. This study analyzes the effects of an increase in the number of on-field college football officials, taking players\nas potential criminals and officials as law enforcers. Analyzing a novel play by play dataset from two seasons of college football, we report evidence of a monitoring effect being present in the overall dataset. This effect is mainly driven by offensive penalties which are called in the area of jurisdiction of the added official. Decomposition of the effect provides evidence of the presence of the deterrence effect in cases of penalties with severe punishment or those committed by teams with moderate to high ability, suggesting that teams are able to strategically adapt their behavior following the addition of an official. Keywords: football; official; crime Fulltext is available at external website.
Criminals on the field: a study of college football

Economists have found mixed evidence on what happens when the number of police increases. On the one hand, more law enforcers means a higher probability of detecting a crime, which is known as the ...

Janhuba, Radek; Čechová, K.
Národohospodářský ústav, 2017

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