Number of found documents: 94
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From Denunciation to Humour. Forms of Attacks by Preachers on non-Roman Catholic Believers in selected Czech Sunday Postils
Havelka, Tomáš
2017 - English
This paper deals with forms of attacks on protestants in bohemical sermons mainly in second half of 17th Century and first half of 18th Century. Although counter reformation has definitely changed confessional conditions in Bohemia after victory on White Mountain battle, protestants persisted as one of most dangerous and strange enemy of pure faith. This attitude aimed mainly to Czech speaking believers and has been persuasively repeated in a lot of deeply influential homiletic works, namely in postils (in Sunday as well as in Feast ones). The aim of paper is inspect the most important Czech Sunday postils and evaluate frequency, strategy and forms of attacks. Excerpted postils were written by Š. Berlička-Scipio, M. V. Štajer, K. Račín, Š. F. Náchodský, F. Veselý, A. Koniáš etc. Some of these postils were clearly published as „a tool“ of strict counter reformation (M. V. Štajer, A. Koniáš), thus shape of their attitudes to protestants should be interesting. Other postils were composed as a manifestation of a moderate process of the counter reformation (F. Veselý); finally, we can find authors with really peculiar way of literary form and type of persuasion as well (Š. F. Náchodský). Keywords: homiletics; Sunday Postils; Early Modern Culture; preacher Available at various institutes of the ASCR
From Denunciation to Humour. Forms of Attacks by Preachers on non-Roman Catholic Believers in selected Czech Sunday Postils

This paper deals with forms of attacks on protestants in bohemical sermons mainly in second half of 17th Century and first half of 18th Century. Although counter reformation has definitely changed ...

Havelka, Tomáš
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Knowledge is a Diamond
Punčochář, Vít
2017 - English
In the standard epistemic logic, the knowledge operator is represented as a box operator, a universal quantifier over a set of possible worlds. There is an alternative approach to the semantics of knowledge, according to which an agent a knows a proposition iff a has a reliable (e.g. sensory) evidence that supports the proposition. In this interpretation, knowledge is viewed rather as an existential, i.e. a diamond modality. In this paper, we will propose a formal semantics for substructural logics that allows to model knowledge on the basis of this intuition. The framework is strongly motivated by a similar semantics introduced by (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). However, as we will argue, our framework overcomes some unintuitive features of the semantics from (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). Most importantly, knowledge does not distribute over disjunction in our logic. Keywords: epistemic logic; substructural logic; knowledge Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Knowledge is a Diamond

In the standard epistemic logic, the knowledge operator is represented as a box operator, a universal quantifier over a set of possible worlds. There is an alternative approach to the semantics of ...

Punčochář, Vít
Filosofický ústav, 2017

A general framework for logics of questions
Punčochář, Vít
2017 - English
This paper provides an overview of basic inquisitive semantics and its generalization proposed in (Punčochář, submitted). It is shown that the generalization allows to model questions over any of a large class of non-classical logics and so avoids paradoxes of material implication and irrelevance in the logic of questions. Moreover, it is advocated that the general framework does not lose any of the characteristic features of basic inquisitive semantics that are needed for modeling of questions. Keywords: inquisitive semantics; logic of questions; substructural logics Available at various institutes of the ASCR
A general framework for logics of questions

This paper provides an overview of basic inquisitive semantics and its generalization proposed in (Punčochář, submitted). It is shown that the generalization allows to model questions over any of a ...

Punčochář, Vít
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Substructural logics for pooling information
Sedlár, Igor; Punčochář, Vít
2017 - English
This paper puts forward a generalization of the account of pooling information – offered by standard epistemic logic – based on intersection of sets of possible worlds. Our account is based on information models for substructural logics and pooling is represented by fusion of information states. This approach yields a representation of\npooling related to structured communication within groups of agents. It is shown that the generalized account avoids some problematic features of the intersection-based approach. Our main technical result is a sound and complete axiomatization of a substructural epistemic logic with an operator expressing pooling.\n Keywords: distributed knowledge; information pooling; substrucural logics Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Substructural logics for pooling information

This paper puts forward a generalization of the account of pooling information – offered by standard epistemic logic – based on intersection of sets of possible worlds. Our account is based on ...

Sedlár, Igor; Punčochář, Vít
Filosofický ústav, 2017

Europe: A Land od Many Names. An Essay on Czech Context of Europe
Hlaváček, Petr
2015 - English
Analysis of the concept of Central Europe in historical and current context of Czechia, Europe and the West. Keywords: Central Europe; West; Czechia; geopolitics Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Europe: A Land od Many Names. An Essay on Czech Context of Europe

Analysis of the concept of Central Europe in historical and current context of Czechia, Europe and the West.

Hlaváček, Petr
Filosofický ústav, 2015

The Philosophy of Purposeless Time
Hauser, Michael
2014 - English
The article addresses the issue of leisure in the sense of ancient schole. It strives to uncover the relationship between Aristotelian concept of theoretical activity and schole as vacuity. It shows a paradoxical character of schole as purposeless time that forms condition for a meaningful activity. How, then, to restore schole as vacuity today, when colonization of time expands? Keywords: Time; leisure; schole; Platon; Aristotle; Marcuse; neoliberalism Available at various institutes of the ASCR
The Philosophy of Purposeless Time

The article addresses the issue of leisure in the sense of ancient schole. It strives to uncover the relationship between Aristotelian concept of theoretical activity and schole as vacuity. It shows a ...

Hauser, Michael
Filosofický ústav, 2014

Temporal Prediction in the Work of Pavel Tichý
Kužel, Petr
2014 - English
The paper deals with temporal prediction within a theoretical system of transparent intentional logic of Czech logician Pavel Tichy. Article in a nutshell characterizes Tichy's arguments against atemporal or time-less conception of Bertrand Russell. It shows how on base of temporal prediction is possible to overcome some logical paradoxes. Explicitly is treated for example McTaggart's paradox. Keywords: temporal prediction; atemporal prediction; transparent intentional logic; transiency; time; indexical terms; McTaggart paradox Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Temporal Prediction in the Work of Pavel Tichý

The paper deals with temporal prediction within a theoretical system of transparent intentional logic of Czech logician Pavel Tichy. Article in a nutshell characterizes Tichy's arguments against ...

Kužel, Petr
Filosofický ústav, 2014

Philosophical Perspective of Humanist Discourse on History: Ars Historica in Patrizi's and Pontano's Dialogues
Šolcová, Kateřina
2014 - English
The renaissance revival of classical learning raised an interest in history that found expression in a new literary genre, ars historica. In this contribution I provide an analysis of two ars historica examples: The dialogue Actius (written around 1499) by the Neapolitan humanist Giovanni Pontano (1426-1503), which emphasized the literary context of history, and Francesco Patrizi’s (1529-1597) Della historia. Dieci dialoghi (1560), underscoring the appropriate method with focus on the true motivations of historical events. A comparison of these two remarkable works will show in which features the humanist authors anticipated the future development that elevated history to a conceptually independent discipline. Keywords: ars historica; G. G. Pontano; F. Patrizi; historiography Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Philosophical Perspective of Humanist Discourse on History: Ars Historica in Patrizi's and Pontano's Dialogues

The renaissance revival of classical learning raised an interest in history that found expression in a new literary genre, ars historica. In this contribution I provide an analysis of two ars ...

Šolcová, Kateřina
Filosofický ústav, 2014

Identificatory functions of the description in a fictional text
Koťátko, Petr
2014 - English
The author argues that descriptions used in narrative fiction typically function as incomplete descriptions of complete entities, rather than as descriptions of incomplete entities. This presupposes a specific account of fictional worlds and their inhabitants. Keywords: description; narrative fiction; fictional world Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Identificatory functions of the description in a fictional text

The author argues that descriptions used in narrative fiction typically function as incomplete descriptions of complete entities, rather than as descriptions of incomplete entities. This presupposes a ...

Koťátko, Petr
Filosofický ústav, 2014

Natural or Artificial Intelligence?
Havlík, Vladimír
2013 - English
The distinction between natural and artificial is the basic question which fundamentally affects other considerations and conclusions connected with artificial intelligence. The article deals with few examples of natural-artificial distinction in the philosophy of science and then discuss what results from it for the problem of intelligence. On the basis of Dennett’s conception of intentionality it tries to show that besides the traditional conception there is another perspective in which the natural-artificial distinction disappears. Keywords: artificial intelligence; natural intelligence; artifact; natural process; intrinsic intentionality; umělá inteligence; inteligence Available at various institutes of the ASCR
Natural or Artificial Intelligence?

The distinction between natural and artificial is the basic question which fundamentally affects other considerations and conclusions connected with artificial intelligence. The article deals with few ...

Havlík, Vladimír
Filosofický ústav, 2013

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